The Geologist activity badge is a fun and
exciting time for the boys as they explore the outdoors for that perfect
rock sample, explore what happens when you crush rocks or create a miniature
volcano. The hands-on activities will encourage the boys to become budding
rock hounds and explorers.
Make a Volcano
small (one liter) plastic soda bottle,
baking pan, dirt, one tablespoon baking soda, one cup of vinegar and red
Place the soda bottle in the pan and
shape dirt around the bottle to form the volcano, taking care not to get
dirt near the bottle's opening.
Pour the tablespoon of baking soda into
the bottle. Color the vinegar with the food coloring, pour into the bottle
and watch what happens!
Baking soda reacting with the vinegar
produces carbon dioxide gas. The gas builds up pressure and forces the
liquid out of the top of the bottle, much like hot gases force the lava from
Make a Geyser
Materials: A funnel, a large
coffee can as tall as the funnel, and some plastic tubing about one yard
Fill the can with water and set the
funnel spout side up inside the can.
Place the end of the tubing under the rim
of the funnel. Gently blow into the other end of the tubing. The air being
blown into the funnel forces air bubbles up the stem of the funnel. As the
air moves upward. it pushes water out the top.
Geysers are funnel-shaped cracks under
the earth's surface. When water in the lower cracks is heated to boiling,
bubbles of steam rise to the surface. The geyser erupts when the rising
steam bubbles force out the water trapped in the top.
Put mud into a disposable cake pan. Let
Now flex the pan at opposite sides.
The cracked, shifted, jagged and broken
pieces are an example of plate tectonics or the premise behind the formation
of the continents.
To demonstrate the strength of an
earthquake, fold a full sheet of newspaper seven or eight times. Now try to
tear the newspaper apart. It doesn't take much effort to tear one sheet (or
one layer of earth), but it takes a tremendous force to tear several layers.
Make Your Own
The shells and bones of many prehistoric
animals have been preserved as casts and molds. To make your own fossil, you
will need a small cardboard box, some clay, plaster and a small clam or
First cover the bottom of the cardboard
box with the modeling clay to the depth of one inch. The clay represents the
soft mud found on the ancient sea floor.
Now press the shell firmly into the clay.
Lift the shell out carefully so that a clear imprint remains. You now have
produced the mold. Next, mix a small amount of plaster with water in a paper
cup. Stir it with a wooden stick or spoon. When the plaster is the
consistency of thick cream, till the mold. After the plaster has thoroughly
hardened, carefully remove it from the mold. You now have a cast of the
Compare the original shell with the
plaster cast. Notice that even some of the most delicate markings on the
shell have been preserved in the plaster.
This same technique is used in
reconstructing the shells of long-dead animals. In addition, casts are
especially useful in working with fossil footprints. When a track is filed
with plaster, the resulting cast will clearly show the size and shape of the
foot of the animal making the track.
True or False'?
The principal ore in the metal Silicon is Quartz.
Mountains are always made by overflowing lava.
Petrified wood is an unusual type of fossil.
knife blade can easily scratch feldspar.
Sandstone is igneous rock made of
Scientists record earthquakes on a Quakograph.
Answers: 1. T
2. F 3. T 4. F
5. F 6. F
All 6 - Diamond 5 - Ruby 4 - Emerald 3 -
Sapphire 2 - Topaz 1 - Calcite 0 - Zirconium
Hardness Scale for Minerals
Geologists use a 1-10 system called Mohs'
scale to estimate rock hardness It works like this: A mineral will scratch
anything that is as hard as or softer than itself. The chart below combines
Mohs' scale with some around-the-house items that are about equal to the
mineral hardness scale. You might want to collect these items for a hardness
household items can be used to test for hardness
King of the Ore
Baltimore Area Council
The boys stand in a circle. The game
begins with the first boy naming something in the house that is made of an
ore or metal and its use. If
he is correct, he becomes King and
can stand in the center of the circle. The next boy in the circle then tries
to name something in the house made
ore or metal and its use.
he is correct, he can then stand in the
he is incorrect, play moves to the next
boy in the circle. Play continues until everyone has had a chance to play.
By Barb Stephens
Circle Ten Council
Read the definitions, then label the diagram.
ash cloud - the cloud of ash that forms in the air
after some volcanic eruptions
conduit - a passage through which magma (molten
rock) flows in a volcano
crust - the Earth's outermost, rocky layer
lava - molten rock; usually comes out of
magma chamber - contains magma (molten
rock) deep within the Earth's crust
side vent - a vent in the side of a volcano
vent - an opening in the Earth's surface
through which volcanic materials erupt
Circle Ten Council
Clothes, type of clothes
you would wear hiking or hunting.
Collecting bag, a knapsack
with pockets is ideal. Lunch size paper bags can be used to put individual
specimens in. Also take newspaper to wrap rocks in first.
Field Notebooks and labels,
Give each specimen a number and label it before you wrap it. In a small
pocket notebook record: Name/ Location/ Date/ collector
Big and little hammers, An
8 x 10 pound sledgehammer and a 1 Ĺ to 2-pound hammer.
Chisels, One or more steel
chisels (Wood chisels chip and dull too quickly)
Goggles and face shields,
To protect face and eyes while hammering at rocks
Magnifiers, Hand lens or
First Aid Kit
Ask for permission before going on
Donít meddle with tools, machinery
or domestic animals
Leave gates as you found them
Stay on roads, donít walk or drive
over growing crops
Take only what you will use for
yourself or trading, leave something for others after you.
Be courteous and considerate of
the rights of others
Listen to the leader.