Heart of America Council
A scientist studies things to learn
how they behave and why. Scientists try to find out the laws of nature about
the things they study, People can use these rules or laws in making things.
While working on this activity badge, you will learn a few of the main ideas
in physics. Physics is a science with several branches. One of these branches
will be weather. You r-an learn a little about weather in these activity
badge requirements. Another branch of physics is called optics. You will have
a chance to learn something about sight and find out how your eyes work.
Scientists learn a lot by experimenting or trying things out. Try things for
yourself. Scientists take nothing for granted. They may be sure an idea is
true, but they always test it, if possible, to make certain they are right.
Speakers: lab technician, nurse,
zoologist, nuclear physicist, weather forecaster, X-ray
technician, science teacher, zoo docent, researcher.
an eye specialist and learn how the eyes work.
the control tower of the KCI or visit Municipal Airport. Learn about the
principles of fight. --
an airplane and look at all the control dials.
your pack leaders by making up some “Scientific Awards.” Cut them out of
-Gravity is a heavy subject. (Shape of the Earth)
are night lights that don’t run up bills. (Stars)
.Astronomers are far-sighted. (Glasses with big eyealls)
-Chemists really, stir things up! (Beaker with bubbing mix.)
Science Fair: Set up and and hold a science fair during your pack meeting.
Show some of the
experinents you have been doing in your den meetings. Display items that you
out what the various eye tests measure.
a local weatherman to your den meeting to talk about the climate during the
year. How is
different in the Southern Hemisphere?
Everyone knows whether they are left-handed or right-handed ... but do you
know whether you are left eyed or right-eyed? Try this test to fmd out. Point
a finger towards a distant object keeping both eyes open. Then close your
right eye. If your finger appears to jump, this means you are right-eyed. If
it does not jump, you are left-eyed.
or thin string
ajar half full of very hot water. Stir in a cup or more of salt, a little at a
time, until no more will dissolve.
some salt onto apiece of string. Tie it around a pencil, tie a paper clip to
the other end, and drop into the water. Lay the pencil across the jar.
the glass in a cool place where it wont be disturbed. Do not touch the jar or
for a few days.
Repeat the process with Epsom salts, sugar, and laundry detergent flakes. Try
adding a little food coloring to one of the solutions.
happening: The salt dissolves in the hot water. But cold water cant hold as
much salt in a dissolved form. So as the water cools, the salt forms again on
Materials: A sheet of paper about 11 inches long.
do: Roll the paper into a tube one inch in diameter. Hold the tube to your
right eye an place the side of your left hand against the middle of the tube,
with your left palm directly toward your left eye. Keep both eyes open as you
look through the tube and you will “see through” your left hand.
a dietitian to your den meeting to talk about how and why foods cook. Why do
you add yeast, salt or soda to recipes? What happens if you forget one of the
ingredients? How does a microwave oven cook foods? What other ways are there
to prepare food? Do some cooking in your kitchen and then sample the foods.
(Microwave cupcakes, hot-air popped popcorn, cookies baked in the oven, grated
cheese broiled on bread, steamed pudding ... Yummy!)
information about the Nobel Prize. How many categories are there? Who was
awarded a prize last year? What did they do or discover?
National Capitol Area
A scientist studies
things to learn how they behave and why. Scientists try to find out the laws
of nature about the things they study. People can use these rules or laws in
making things. While working on this activity badge, you will learn a few of
the main ideas in physics. Physics is a science with several branches. One
of these branches will be weather. You can learn a little about weather in
these activity badge requirements. Another branch of physics is called
optics. You will have a chance to learn something about sight and find out
how your eyes work. Scientists learn a lot by experimenting or trying things
out. Try things for yourself. Scientists take nothing for granted. They may
be sure an idea is true, but they always test it, if possible, to make certain
they are right.
Talk about the
various branches of science and how they differ.
Do the atmospheric
pressure tests or balance tests in the Webelos Book.
Do the inertia
experiments in the Webelos Book.
Visit an eye
specialist and learn how the eyes converge and find out what the various eye
Invite a local
weatherman to your den meeting to talk about the climate during the year. How
is weather different in the Southern Hemisphere?
Have a slow-motion
bicycle riding contest to illustrate balancing skills.
Plan a scientific
experiment to be demonstrated at the pack meeting.
Lab technician, nurse, zoologist, nuclear physicist, weather forecaster, X-ray
technician, science teacher, researcher.
Visit an eye
specialist and learn how the eyes work.
Visit the control
tower of the Metropolitan Airport or visit a Municipal Airport. Learn about
the principles of fight.
Tour an airplane and
look at all the control dials.
Honor your pack
leaders by making up some "Scientific Awards." Cut them out of poster board.
Gravity is a heavy
subject. (Shape of the Earth)
Stars are night
lights that don't run up bills. (Stars)
far-sighted. (Glasses with big eyeballs)
stir things up! (Beaker with bubbling mix.)
Science Fair: Set up
and hold a science fair during your pack meeting. Show some of the simple
experiments you have been doing in your den meetings. Display items that you
Pascal's Law -- "The
pressure of a liquid or a gas like air is the same in every direction if the
liquid is in a closed container. If you put more pressure on the top of the
liquid’ or gas. the increased pressure will spread all over the container."
A good experiment to
demonstrate air pressure is to take two plumber's force cups (plumber's
friend) and force them firmly against each other so that some of the air is
forced out from between them. Then have the boys try to pull them apart.
When you drink
something with a straw, do you suck up the liquid? No! What happens is that
the air pressure inside the straw is reduced, so that the air outside the
straw forces the liquid up the straw. To prove this fill a pop bottle with
water, put a straw into the bottle, then seal the top of the bottle with clay,
taking care that the straw is not bent or crimped. Then let one of the boys
try to suck the water out of the bottle. They can't do it! Remove the clay
and have the boy put two straws into his mouth. Put one of the straws into
the bottle of water and the other on the outside. Again he'll have no luck in
sucking water out of the bottle. The second straw equalizes the air pressure
inside your mouth.
Place about 1/4 cup
baking soda in a coke bottle. Pour about 1/4 cup vinegar into a balloon. Fit
the top of the balloon over the top of the bottle, and flip the balloon so
that the vinegar goes into the bottle. The gas formed from the mixture will
blow the balloon, up so that it will stand upright on the bottle and begin to
expand. The baking soda and vinegar produce C02, which pushes equally in all
directions. The balloon which can expand in all directions with pressure,
will do so as the gas is pressured into it.
For this next
experiment you will need: A medicine dropper, a tall jar, well filled with
water; a sheet of rubber which can be cut from a balloon; and a rubber band.
Dip the medicine
dropper in the water and fill it partly. Test the dropper in the jar - if it
starts to sink, squeeze out a few drops until it finally floats with the top
of the bulb almost submerged. Now, cap the jar with the sheet of rubber and
fix the rubber band around the edges until the jar is airtight. Push the
rubber down with your finger and the upright dropper will sink. Now relax
your finger and the dropper will rise. You have prepared a device known as a
'Cartesian Diver'. The downward pressure on the rubber forces the water up
into the bottom of the diver, compressing the air above it, producing the
effects of sinking, suspension and floating, according to the degree of
"Inertia is the tendency of a thing at rest to remain at rest and a thing in
motion to continue the same straight line".
Get a small stick
about 10 inches in length and the diameter of a pencil. Fold a newspaper and
place it near the edge of a table. Place the stick under the newspaper on the
table and let about half he stick extend over the edge of the table. Strike
the stick sharply with another stick. Inertia should cause the stick on the
table to break into two parts.
Get a fresh egg and
a hard-boiled egg. Give each of them a spinning motion in a soup dish.
Observe that the hard-boiled egg spins longer. The inertia of the fluid
contents of the fresh egg brings it to rest sooner.
Glass That Won't Spill – Fill a drinking glass to the very top with water.
The water should spill over the top a bit. Carefully lay the cardboard square
to completely cover the top the glass. Holding the cardboard on top, turn the
glass over until it is straight upside down. Stop holding the cardboard on.
It will stay on by itself.
Drinks -- Using a can opener make a small hole in a can of juice. Try to
drink the juice. What happens when you punch another hole in the can? Open a
bottle of juice. Add enough water to fill the bottle to the very top. Put in
a straw. Use clay to completely block the opening of the bottle around the
straw. Try to drink the juice.
What is happening:
There is no air in the glass of water to punch down on the cardboard. The air
pressure pushing up on the cardboard is greater that the weight of the water.
And the juice won't come out of the hole unless air can get in to push down on
it; you need a second hole to let air in. Juice won't go tip the straw
because no air is getting in to push down on the juice.
Air-Cannon Hockey --
This game will demonstrate air pressure. Use round cardboard oatmeal boxes.
Cut a hole the size of a penny in the tops. Fasten the lid back to the box
tightly. Use a table for a field, with a goal at either end. Have a boy sit
at each end of the 'field' with a cannon (box) and put a ping-pong ball in the
middle of the table. By tapping the back of the box and aiming it at the
ball, try to score by putting the ball through your opponent's goal. The
Webelos leader can demonstrate the effectiveness of his oatmeal box cannon by
using it to put out a candle. Fill cannon with smoke, then aim at candle, tap
back of box, and flame will be put out. These cannons are effective up to
about six feet.
A Homemade Barometer
milk bottle, a soda straw, a piece of a penny balloon, and a length of
Cover the mouth of the milk bottle with the piece of balloon, tying it in
place with the string. Glue one end of the soda straw to the middle of the
balloon. Make a scale on a piece of cardboard, by making 1/2 inch marks about
1/8 inch apart. Superimpose the free end of the straw across the scale, but
don't let it touch the scale. Mark the scale from 1 to whatever number of
lines on the scale. Ask one of the boys to be in charge of the barometer for
a month. Have him mark the number on the scale that the barometer points to
each day at a certain time. This way there can be a check between your
barometer and the actual air pressure as given in the newspaper each day.
Remember that as the air pressure increases, the straw will point higher on
A Fog-Making Machine
Use a plain glass
gallon jug, a stopper to fit it and a bicycle pump. Put a small amount of
water or alcohol (which works even better) in the jug. Bore a hole through
the stopper in the mouth of the jug. After a few strokes of the pump, remove
the stopper quickly. There will be a loud pop and you will see that a cloud
will form in the jug. To get 'fair weather', all you need to do is replace
the parts as they were, and pump air back into the jug. The reason the cloud
was formed is that in pumping air into the jug, the temperature was raised,
making it possible for the air to hold more moisture. When the top was
removed, the air expanded and cooled. This cool air could not hold as much
moisture, thereby forming a cloud.
You will need:
salt, sugar, Epsom salts, laundry detergent flakes, 4 glass jars, 4 spoons,
magnifying glass, thread or thin string, very hot water, pencils, paper clips,
Fill a jar half full
of very hot water. Stir in a cup or more of salt, a little at a time, until
no more will dissolve.
2. Rub some salt
onto a piece of string. Tie it around a pencil, tie a paper clip to the other
end, and drop into the water. Lay the pencil across the jar.
3. Put the glass in
a cool place where it won't be disturbed. Do not touch the jar or the
pencil. Watch for a few days.
4. Repeat the
process with Epsom salts, sugar, and laundry detergent flakes. Try adding a
little food coloring to one of the solutions.
What is happening:
The salt dissolves in the hot water. But cold water can't hold as much salt
in a dissolved form. So as the water cools, the salt forms again on the
Do It Yourself
Flashlight -- This flashlight can be assembled easily and provide a fun
project for the boys. And better yet, it actually works!
You will need:
a flashlight battery, a bulb, a plastic pill bottle with a flexible lid
and some insulated wire. (The pill bottle should be large enough for the
batter and bulb base to fit inside it. The wire should be the kind that can be
Scrape the insulation from one end of your wire and form it into a flat coil.
Attach the coil to the bottom of the battery with adhesive tape. Cut an
opening in the center of the pill bottle lid. so that the base of the bulb
will fit. Push base of bulb through hole in lid. Scrape the other end of the
wire and wind it around the base of the bulb. Secure in place with tape.
Crumble small piece of paper. Place enough of this in bottom of bottle so
that when battery is inserted and the lid is tightly in place, the bottom of
the bulb will just make contact with the raised center top of the battery.
Hinge one side of the lid to the bottle with tape. When lid is closed. the
bulb will light. To shut off your flashlight, flip up the lid. This light
creates a dim glow. If you want a larger light, use two batteries in a larger
Eyes Right or Left
Ask the Webelos
Scouts if they are right-eyed or left-eyed as they are right-handed and
left-handed. They can check by extending a finger towards a distant object
and keeping both eyes open. Then tell them to close their right eye. If
their finger appears to jump, this means they are right-eyed, if it does not,
they are left-eyed, since the left eye is dominant.
Webelos take turns seeing how many toothpicks they can land in a milk bottle
which is placed on the floor an arm's length away, Players drop the toothpicks
one at a time. They may lean forward, but can't move their feet.
(True or False?) (Make copies of this quiz for all the Webelos to try.)
Electric current was
discovered in Italy in 1781. (True, by Luigi Galvani.)
was an accidental discovery by Charles Goodyear. (True, in 1839.)
Madame Curie was the
second woman to win the Nobel Prize. (False, she was the first woman. It was
in Chemistry, for the discovery of radium,)
Mark Twain was the
first author to submit a typewritten manuscript to a publisher. (True, Life
on. the Mississippi in about 1875.)
5. "Disks for the
Eyes" was the original name for contact lenses. (False, the name for
eyeglasses that were made in Italy in 1280.)
A Real Attention
Getter: Inflate a balloon and affix 3 - 4 squares of plastic tape to it.
Have a boy stick a pin through the center of each piece of tape. To
everyone's amazement, the balloon will not burst. When the pins are removed
the balloon still will not burst. What is happening: The adhesive substance
on the tape acts like a self-sealing automobile tire, adhering to the pin as
it is pressed inward. When the pin is removed, the adhesive is forced outward
by the air pressure from within the balloon, automatically sealing the tiny